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    0 CPU Hierarchy 2019 – CPU Tier List For Processors


    CPU ModelCore/Thread CountBase Clock (GHz)Overclocking SupportedSocket
    AMD Ryzen Threadripper 2990WX 32 (64) 3 Yes TR4
    AMD Ryzen Threadripper 2970WX 24 (48) 3 Yes TR4
    Intel Core i9-9900K 8 (16) 3.6 Yes LGA1151
    Ryzen 9 3900X 12 (24) 3.8 Yes AM4
    Ryzen 7 3800X 8 (16) 3.9 Yes AM4
    Intel Core i9-7980XE 18 (36) 2.6 Yes LGA 2066
    Intel Core i9-7960X 16 (32) 2.8 Yes LGA 2066
    AMD Ryzen Threadripper 2950WX 16 (32) 3.5 Yes TR4
    Intel Core i7-9700K 8 (8) 3.6 Yes LGA1151
    Ryzen 7 3700X 8 (16) 3.6 Yes AM4
    Intel Core i9-7940X 14 (28) 3.1 Yes LGA 2066
    Intel Core i9-7920X 12 (24) 2.9 Yes LGA 2066
    AMD Ryzen Threadripper 2920WX 12 (24) 3.5 Yes TR4
    Intel Core i9-7900X 10 (20) 3.3 Yes LGA 2066
    Ryzen Threadripper 1950X 16 (32) 3.4 Yes TR4
    Intel Core i5-9600K 6 (6) 3.7 Yes LGA1151
    Ryzen 5 3600X 6 (12) 3.8 Yes AM4
    Ryzen 5 3600 6 (12) 3.6 Yes AM4
    Ryzen Threadripper 1920X 12 (24) 3.5 Yes TR4
    Ryzen Threadripper 1900X 8 (16) 3.8 Yes TR4
    Intel Core i7-8700K 6 (12) 3.7 Yes LGA1151
    Intel Core i7-8700 6 (12) 3.2 No LGA1151
    Ryzen 7 2700X 8 (16) 3.7 Yes AM4
    Ryzen 7 2700 8 (16) 3.2 Yes AM4
    Intel Core i5-8600K 6 (6) 3.6 Yes LGA1151
    Intel Core i5-9500 6 (6) 3 No LGA1151
    Intel Core i5-9400 6 (6) 2.9 No LGA1151
    Intel Core i3-8350K 4 (4) 4.0 Yes LGA1151
    Ryzen 5 2600X 6 (12) 3.6 Yes AM4
    Intel Core i5-8400 6 (6) 2.8 No LGA1151
    Ryzen 5 2600 6 (12) 3.4 Yes AM4
    Intel Core i3-9100 4 (4) 3.6 No LGA1151
    Ryzen 5 3400G 4 (8) 3.7 Yes AM4
    Ryzen 3 3200G 4 (4) 3.6 Yes AM4
    Intel Core i3-8100 4 (4) 3.6 No LGA1151
    Ryzen 5 2400G 4 (8) 3.6 Yes AM4
    Ryzen 3 2200G 4 (4) 3.5 Yes AM4
    Intel Pentium G5600 2 (4) 3.9 No LGA1151
    Intel Pentium G5500 2 (4) 3.8 No LGA1151
    Intel Pentium G4620 4 (4) 3.8 No LGA1151
    Intel Pentium G5400 2 (4) 3.7 No LGA1151
    Intel Pentium G4600 2 (4) 3.6 No LGA1151
    Intel Pentium G4560 2 (4) 3.5 No LGA1151
    AMD Athlon 240GE 2 (4) 3.5 No AM4
    AMD Athlon 220GE 2 (4) 3.4 No AM4
    AMD Athlon 200GE 2 (4) 3.2 No AM4
    AMD A12-9800 4 (4) 3.8 Yes AM4
    AMD A12-9800E 4 (4) 3.1 Yes AM4
    AMD A10-9700 4 (4) 3.5 Yes AM4
    AMD A10-9700E 4 (4) 3 Yes AM4
    AMD A8-9600 4 (4) 3.1 Yes AM4
    Intel Celeron G4900 2 (2) 3.1 No LGA1151
    AMD A6-9500 2 (2) 3.5 Yes AM4
    AMD A6-9500E 2 (2) 3 Yes AM4

    Tier 1 – Unmatched Power

    The first tier CPUs are the most powerful microprocessors currently on the market. They push the norms both in regards to speed and core count, have higher than average power draw and are physically larger as well.

    They are the most powerful processors overall but are not aimed towards gamers. Rather, they are the best fit for high-end workstations and servers. Getting one solely for gaming would be a waste, both of money and of their potential.

    AMD and Intel are quite competitive in this tier, as the Threadripper and Core i9 CPUs are on fairly even terms, although the former have the upper hand when it comes to multitasking (due to a higher core and thread count) while the latter still fare better in regards to single-core tasks.

    AMD CPUsIntel CPUs
    AMD Ryzen Threadripper 2990WX Intel Core i9-9900K
    AMD Ryzen Threadripper 2970WX Intel Core i9-7980XE
    AMD Ryzen Threadripper 2950WX Intel Core i9-7960X
    AMD Ryzen Threadripper 2920WX Intel Core i9-7940X
    Ryzen Threadripper 1950X Intel Core i9-7920X
    Ryzen Threadripper 1920X Intel Core i9-7900X
    Ryzen Threadripper 1900X  
    Ryzen 9 3900X  
    Ryzen 9 3800X


    Tier 2 – A More Accessible Powerhouse

    The second tier CPUs focus on offering superb performance for desktop PCs at much more affordable prices than their first tier counterparts. They come with high core counts and the vast majority uses the mainstream sockets, which would be AM4 and LGA1151 for AMD and Intel respectively.

    These CPUs are a great choice both for workstations and gaming PCs, provided that the gaming PC in question is equipped either with either multiple GPUs or an exceedingly powerful one. For the average gamer, however, any of these CPUs would still be an overkill.

    Once again, there is quite a bit of competition in this tier ever since AMD had released most of their original Ryzen 7 models in early 2017. When put up against one another, the 2nd generation Ryzen and the 9th generation Intel CPUs are on relatively even terms: Intel remains on top when it comes to single-threaded tasks, but AMD has the upper hand in regards to multitasking, all the while their CPUs are slightly more affordable.

    AMD CPUsIntel CPUs
    Ryzen 7 3700X Intel Core i7-9700K
    Ryzen 7 2700X Intel Core i7-8700K
    Ryzen 7 2700 Intel Core i7-8700

    Tier 3 – A Gamer’s Favorite

    The third tier CPUs are the most popular in the gaming community by far. They offer excellent performance and a high number of cores at very approachable prices, making them ideal for gaming and miscellaneous computer use.

    Much like with the previous two tiers, AMD only truly became competitive in this price range with the release of Ryzen 5 CPUs around the middle of 2017, and as with their pricier counterparts described above, the Intel vs AMD situation remains largely the same in this tier.

    AMD CPUsIntel CPUs
    Ryzen 5 3600X Intel Core i5-9600K
    Ryzen 5 3600 Intel Core i5-9500
    Ryzen 5 2600X Intel Core i5-9400
    Ryzen 5 2600 Intel Core i5-8600K
      Intel Core i5-8400
      Intel Core i3-8350K


    Tier 4 – A More Affordable Gaming Solution

    The fourth tier CPUs are not as powerful as third tier ones in terms of raw performance but are much more affordable than the aforementioned “beefier” models. Combine that with the fact that they are more than sufficient for running mid-range GPUs, and it becomes apparent as to why they are the most cost-effective option for a lot of gamers.

    AMD used to have a flimsy presence in this range that consisted solely of their dated FX CPUs which could not compete with what Intel was offering. But as before, with the introduction of Ryzen 3, AMD had very viable solutions once again, and this led to Intel upgrading their Core i3 CPUs to true quad-core status, as opposed to the hyper-threaded dual-cores that they were before.

    AMD CPUsIntel CPUs
    Ryzen 5 3400G Intel Core i3-9100
    Ryzen 3 3200G Intel Core i3-8100
    Ryzen 5 2400G  
    Ryzen 3 2200G


    Tier 5 – Good For Those On A Tight Budget

    And finally, there are the fifth tier CPUs which are the most affordable CPUs out there, but as such, they are also the weakest. They are ideal for regular non-gaming PCs or office computers but they will inevitably bottleneck all but the most affordable GPUs to varying degrees.

    This tier consists of several latest CPUs and APUs from Intel and AMD respectively. This includes the Intel Pentium and Celeron CPUs, as well as the AMD Athlon and A-series APUs.

    AMD CPUsIntel CPUs
    AMD Athlon 240GE Intel Pentium G5600
    AMD Athlon 220GE Intel Pentium G5500
    AMD Athlon 200GE Intel Pentium G4620
    AMD A12-9800 Intel Pentium G5400
    AMD A12-9800E Intel Pentium G4600
    AMD A10-9700 Intel Pentium G4560
    AMD A10-9700E Intel Celeron G4900
    AMD A8-9600  
    AMD A6-9500  
    AMD A6-9500E
    0 Amlogic S912 vs Amlogic A311D/S922X-B Benchmarks Comparison

    Amlogic S912 vs Amlogic A311D/S922X-B Benchmarks Comparison



    Amlogic S922X-B/A311D vs Amlogic S912 – Key features

      Amlogic A311D & S922X-B
    Amlogic S912
    CPU Quad-core Cortex-A73 @ 2.21 GHz
    Dual-core Cortex-A53 @ 1.8 GHz
    Octa-core Cortex-A53 @ 1.51 GHz
    GPU Arm Mali-G52MP4 with OpenGL ES 3.1 support ARM Mali-T820MP3 with OpenGL ES 3.0 support
    NPU Yes (5.0 TOPS) No
    – 4K 10-bit HEVC decode Up to 60 fps
    – 4K VP9 decode Up to 60 fps
    – 4K H.264 decode Up to 30 fps (8-bit only)
    – Encode 1080p60 H.264/H.265 1080p60 H.264
    – HDR Dolby Vision, HDR10, HDR10+, HLG, and PRIME HDR Dolby Vision, HDR10 and HLG

    Amlogic S912 is an octa-core processor so people who do not follow the market, may think it will be faster than Amlogic S922X-B hexa-core processor, but the latter comes with more powerful Cortex-A73 cores and Cortex-A53 both clocked at a higher frequency thanks to a 12nm manufacturing processor. The GPU is also more modern with OpenGL ES 3.1 support.

    Amlogic S912 was launched at a time when nobody had ever heard of NPU (Neural Processing Unit) in Arm SoCs. Multimedia features are similar, but Amlogic A311D/S922X-B does have support for H.265 encoding, and more HDR (High Dynamic Range) options.

    Amlogic S922X-B vs Amlogic S912 – Benchmarks

      Amlogic A311D/S922-X Amlogic S912
    Antutu 7.x      
    Overall 131,555 51,640 2.55x
    Overall exc. OpenGL 3.1 “Refinery” (1) 114,335 51,640 2.21x
    CPU 53,350 25,891 2.06x
    GPU 35,473 4,902 7.24x
    GPU exc. OpenGL 3.1 “Refinery” (1) 18,253 4,902 3.72x
    UX 33,731 16,949 1.99x
    MEM 6,001 3,898 1.54x
    PCMark 10      
    Overall 5,968 3,297 1.81x
    Web Browsing 2.0 6,450 3,286 1.96x
    Video Editing 5,298 4,089 1.30x
    Writing 2.0 5,713 2,383 2.40x
    Photo Editing 2.0 7,164 4,814 1.49x
    Data Manipulation 5,435 2,525 2.15x
    3DMark – Sling Shot (OpenGL ES 3.0)
    Total score  1,659 473 3.51x
    Graphics score 1,558 407 3.83x
    Physics score 2,143 1,093 1.96x

    (1) Refinery does not run on Khadas VIM2 / Amlogic S912 since OpenGL ES 3.1 is not supported, and as such the score was 0, while Khadas VIM3 got 17,220 points in the same test. This distorts the results, so I’ve also presented results without Refinery, which give a more realistic view of the performance difference.

    Amlogic A311D is way faster than Amlogic S912, about doubling the CPU performance, web browsing scores and so on. I can remember I was disappointed when Amlogic S912 with Mali-T820MP3 was not that much faster compared to Amlogic S905 with Mali-450MP3 GPU in games and benchmarks. But in their latest SoCs, Amlogic did not mess around, provided a proper upgrade with Mali-G52MP4 GPU providing 3 to 4 times 3D graphics performance, and making it suitable as a gaming platform.

    So if you have an old Amlogic S912 SBC or TV box and wonder if it’s worth upgrading to Amlogic S922X-B or A311D, don’t hesitate anymore, unless all you do is watching videos in which case the experience should be similar. Amlogic S922X will also provide a significant upgrade over S912, but just a little slower compared to A311D due to the 1.8 GHz maximum CPU frequency.

    0 Amlogic S905X2 vs S905X3 – Features Comparison

    Despite Arm claiming Cortex-A55 core would bring some performance improvements, we’ve recently seen actual Amlogic S905X3 benchmarks show the performance compared to Amlogic S905X2 Arm Cortex-A53 is almost identical (3% improvement for S905X3 CPU, 9% for the GPU).

    So Amlogic S905X3 TV box processor must differentiate itself from its predecessor by its additional features, and while we published the detailed specifications of Amlogic S905X3 processor a few months ago, we did not provide a side-by-side comparison table just yet. So here’s one courtesy of SDMC (with some corrections).

    SoC Amlogic S905X2 Amlogic S905X3
    CPU 4x Arm Cortex-A53 @ 1.80 GHz 4x Arm Cortex-A55 @ 1.91 GHz
    Neural Network Accelerator N/A

    Optional 1.2 TOPS NNA

    GPU Mali-G31 MP2 with OpenGL ES 3.2, Vulkan 1.0, and OpenCL 2.0
    Always-on MCU Cortex-M3 & Cortex-M4 (Optional ) Cortex-M3 & Cortex-M4
    DDR DDR3-2133 /DDR3L-2133 /
    DDR4-2666 /LPDDR3-2133 /LPDDR4-3200 SDRAM up to 4G
    DDR3-2133 /DDR3L-2133 /
    DDR4-3200 /LPDDR3-2133 /
    LPDDR4-3200 SDRAM up to 4G
    H.265, VP9, AVS2 up to 4Kp75 10bit H.264 4Kp30
    HDMI Tx HDMI 2.1  HDCP2.2
    HDR HLG/HDR10/ 10+  Dolby vison,TCH PRIME
    Process 12nm
    Mic Input 8 x PDM
    USB3.0/PCIE USB3.0/PCI-E V2 (multiplexed)
    Package 14 x 14mm BGA
    Embedded Temperature Sensor Yes

    The Neural Processing Unit (NPU) / Neural Network Accelerator (NNA) is probably the most important change, as it should allow for better support for voice commands, language processing, or other workloads that would benefit from AI acceleration.

    The higher maximum frequency for DDR4 memory (3,200 MHz vs 2,666 MHz) may explain the slightly better 3D graphics performance since I’ve noticed such benchmarks are sensitive to memory bandwidth, e.g. systems with dual-channel memory will have better graphics performance than the ones with single-channel memory. It may also help with some 4K HDR content (TBC).

    But all-in-all Amlogic S905X2 and S905X3 are not that different.

    0 Raspberry Pi 4 Features Broadcom BCM2711 Processor, Up to 4GB RAM

    Raspberry Pi 4 Features Broadcom BCM2711 Processor, Up to 4GB RAM

    he Raspberry Pi 4 model B has finally launched, and it should not disappoint with a Broadcom BCM2711 quad-core Cortex-A72 processor clocked at up to 1.5 GHz, 1 to 4GB LPDDR4, 4K H.265 video decoding and output support, a proper Gigabit Ethernet port, as well as USB 3.0 and 2.0 ports.

    Raspberry Pi 4 comes with all those extra features, but the form factor remains the same, and importantly the price is still $35 for the version with 1GB RAM

    Raspberry Pi 4

    Raspberry Pi 4 specifications:

      • SoC – Broadcom BCM2711 quad-core Cortex-A72 (ARMv8) @  1.5GHz with VideoCore VI GPU supporting OpenGL ES 3.0 graphics
      • System Memory – 1GB, 2GB or 4GB LPDDR4
      • Storage – microSD card slot
      • Video Output  & Display I/F
        • 2x micro HDMI ports up to 4Kp60 (Currently 1080p60 max. in dual-display configuration, although 2x 4Kp30 is being worked on)
        • 3.5mm AV port with composite video (and stereo audio)
        • 2-lane MIPI DSI display port
      • Video
        • Decode – H.265 up to 4Kp60, H.264 up to 1080p60
        • Encode – H.264 up to 1080p30
      • Camera – 2-lane MIPI CSI camera port
      • Audio – Stereo audio via AV port, digital audio via HDMI ports
      • Connectivity
        • True Gigabit Ethernet (RJ45)
        • Dual band (2.4 GHz/5.0 GHz) 802.11b/g/n/ac WiFi 5
        • Bluetooth 5.0 BLE
      • USB – 2x USB 3.0 ports, 2x USB 2.0 ports.
      • Expansion – Standard 40-pin GPIO header fully backward-compatible with previous Raspberry Pi boards
      • Power Supply
        • 5V DC via USB-C connector (minimum 3A )
        • 5V DC via GPIO header (minimum 3A )
        • Power over Ethernet (PoE) via optional PoE HAT
      • Dimensions – 85 x 56 mm (same as other model B boards)
      • Temperature Range – 0 – 50°C

    Raspberry Pi 4

    Beside the “true” Gigabit Ethernet port, the good news for people interested in network storage applications is that the shared USB + Ethernet bandwidth is gone, as there’s a separate Gigabit Ethernet transceiver (BCM54213PE), and USB goes through a VIA VL805 PCIe to 4-port USB 3.0 host controller. The latter means BCM2711 comes with a PCIe interface giving the Raspberry Pi foundation some flexibility for future Raspberry Pi SBC’s.

    There have been at least two hardware changes that have made the new board incompatible with existing Raspberry Pi cases:

    1. They swapped two USB ports and the Ethernet port to place the latter closer to the PoE header.
    2. They replaced the HDMI port with two micro HDMI ports

    So a new case is needed, and here’s the official Raspberry Pi 4 enclosure.

    The USB-C port shold mean issues related to powering the board should mostly be a thing of the past, and the main downside I see from the announcement is that we’ll need to get micro HDMI cables or HDMI to micro HDMI adapters to connect Raspberry Pi 4 to HDMI TVs or monitors. Not a big issue.